Elaborations on Anthrax:
Propaganda on biological weapons including anthrax originates in the dark cellars of government for the purpose of swaying the public for increased police powers. A terrorist threat is hyped or contrived, while military research on contagious diseases is concealed.
I avoided diversions on the other pages, because I wanted to be as succinct as possible. Here are some points which require more development of context. Liquid Anthrax is Ineffective.
One major point is that using biowarfare agents in liquid form is a unrealistic. The bureaucrats don't know it; and a lot of peripheral scientists don't know it.
When the bureaucrats found that Iraq was buying spray nozzles for planes, they went hyper over it. They should have done the opposite; they should have sold the sprayers at a discount, and everyone would have been better off.
Microbes Tend to Clump.
Some background on basics is needed here. The physical characteristics of microbes have a high tendency to be oriented toward clumping in various complex ways.
For example, the yeast which I studied in graduate school produced clumps; and I had to use special procedures to unclump it for counting. The reason why yeasts sometimes clump is because insects will pick up more of them on their feet when they are clumped.
Bacteria almost always have a pattern for clumping. You've probably heard of staph bacteria; they often take over hospitals. Staph is Latin for cluster. The clumps look like clusters of grapes. Staph normally attacks skin through pores and produces a toxin like anthrax. The clumping allows the toxin to be concentrated in one place, so it can damage tissue more effectively.Similar to it is strep, which creates strep throat. Strep is Latin for chain. The chains allow clumping while keeping the profile low for clinging to tissue without being washed down the throat by saliva.
Anthrax Grows in Chains.
You've probably seen Anthrax growing on TV. It creates a chain which keeps getting longer and longer until it covers the entire surface. The cells stay joined together in chains, so the toxin is concentrated to produce the maximum amount of tissue damage.
Clumping is not Suited for a Mist.
The clumping characteristics of microbes demonstrate the importance of physical characteristics in distribution. None of the organisms are naturally distributed through a mist. They certainly wouldn't clump if they were.
Therefore, if they are in a liquid, they will clump; and when sprayed, they will come out as clumps, if they come out at all without plugging the apparatus. Normal spray nozzles could not be used. Clumps and cells are not anything like a chemical. Spraying devices are designed for chemicals, not microbes. That fact seems to escape the awareness of most peripheral scientists as well as the nonscientists.
Air Precipitates Liquids.
Propagandists talk about spry nozzles that will produce a five micron mist. One of the absurdities is that the characteristics of a mist are not determined by a nozzle but by the air which it is sprayed into. What sort of nozzle creates rain? When air gets supersaturated, it creates a precipitate. Spraying liquid into air supersaturates it creating a precipitate. That means that liquid particles combine to form larger ones. The more the liquid, the larger the drops.
For biowarfare purposes, a very large amount of liquid would have to be forced into a relatively small amount of air, because the delivery devices would have to be fast, and they could not cover much area. There is no delivery device that would be adequate, because air will not hold a large amount of liquid. Air is often saturated already, particularly at night. Iraq focuses on liquids for its biowarfare agents, which demonstrates that its science is not up to the level of a coolaid stand. Putting liquid in a scud missile is a joke. Westerners haven't seemed to have quite grasped how backwards science can be in the third world including Iraq. Journalists often speak of Iraq's sophisticated science laboratories, as if you could order science through the mail like gold plated bathroom fixtures.
Larry Harris's Story.
Here's a story that tells everything about Iraq's sophisticated science. This story comes from Larry Harris. He's the sort-of microbiologist who keeps getting thrown in jail for trying to develop an Anthrax vaccine. He said in his book, which he put on the internet, that he took several courses in advanced microbiology in Ohio. The courses were presumably undergraduate; but regardless, he studied microbiology on paper and has never spent enough time in a laboratory to see how microbes actually grow. So he swallows everything he hears hook, line and sinker.
His campaign against biowarfare began with a discussion with another microbiology student who was from Iraq. She said she was the daughter of a former official of Iraq. She was studying microbiology, because she had been in the laboratories in Iraq and was enthused about biological warfare.
Spray-cans full of Gunk.
She said Iraq developed a terrorist procedure for spreading anthrax in this country by sending persons around with spray-cans of the type that are used for spraying gardens. She said the procedure was to open the can, put in some media, inoculate it and let it grow. After a few days it could be sprayed in subway tunnels or ventilation systems to kill people.
Remember how anthrax grows? It forms chains of cells stuck together for clumping; and it forms a capsule under some conditions. The spray-can that it grew in would have slimy, smelly gunk in it which wouldn't go through the hose, let along a spray nozzle.
But there are several reasons why that procedure is exactly what Iraq would have developed. One reason is because pathogens in a liquid are easy to work with. The bugs don't come out of the liquid easily to harm the workers.Secondly, when dictators such as Saddam Hussein demand results, someone better produce results, or heads roll. Dictators of that type maintain an intimidation atmosphere by executing someone for failures as well as rebellion. Since biowarfare in its traditionally assumed form cannot be produced, concocting any pretense which convinces Saddam Hussein would be the goal of the researchers. When the peripheral scientists fall for it, it does the job.
Russia Spends Money on Futility.
Russia does a lot of research on biological weapons including anthrax. But it is mostly genetic engineering. Where that approach fails is that there is not a realistic delivery system.
Spending a lot of money is not the same thing as succeeding. Since the agents cannot be tested under actual conditions, their limitations are not visible to the nonexperts, and the researchers would pull the wool over their eyes, because they have ideal jobs, with all the money the military spends on research.
A few years ago, Anthrax escaped from a research facility in Russia and killed 68 people in a town downwind. Apparently, Russia still claims the anthrax was in meat. But a Harvard professor went over there and said ten grams escaped from a nearby research facility. How can a professor look at a building and determine that ten grams came out of it? Here's what would have happened. The military desperately needs to test its products, and killing people is the only way it can do it. So they would have released about a kilogram of powdered Anthrax spores from their research facility on a windy day; and nothing would have happened. Then a few weeks later, they would have released about ten kilograms; and nothing would have happened. So they would have gotten out a fan and clouded the air for two days, which would have killed the 68 persons.
The U.S. military has an official web site on Anthrax where they state that there are enough anthrax spores in a gram to kill 100 million persons. A gram would be about a trillion Anthrax spores, if pure, since bacterial spores are about one micron in diameter and about the density of water. A micron is one ten thousandths of a centimeter. So a cubic micron is a trillionth of a cubic centimeter, the later weighing one gram for water. The military uses the figure of ten thousand Anthrax spores being required to start an infection in the lungs. So dividing a trillion spores by ten thousand yields 100 million persons being killed per gram.
So how many persons does a gram of Anthrax kill? Is it 6.8 persons, as supposedly occurred in Russia, or 100 million, as the U.S. military claims? There's a lot of difference.
Anthrax was Trivial before Recent Hype.
Anthrax was unheard of by the public before sometime around 1995, when a flood of media stories appeared. At first, the subject was supposed terrorists weapons, but anthrax eventually became the center of focus. A flood of stories hitting the media means the government underworld is behind them. Even during the Gulf War, anthrax was not mentioned. When the Israelis prepared for attack, the only thing they considered was nerve gas. The reason why is because anthrax was never considered to be a significant biological weapon.
The reason why Iraq never developed anthrax significantly is because it was too trivial to waste time on. The researchers left it in liquid form, so they could tell the higher-ups that they were doing something, but they knew it was too trivial to waste time converting it to a dry powder, which would be difficult and expensive.
When the U.S Government started promoting supposed terrorists weapons for disinformation purposes in 1995, very few persons had any way of knowing the truth about anthrax. Why are exploiters hyping anthrax now but weren't before 1995? If anthrax were as dangerous as they say it is, it would have been in the news for a century.
Anthrax took off in the media because the biology is obscure, and there was no separation of contrivance from fact. Before 1995, the persons who knew anything about anthrax considered it to be trivial to a point of irrelevance, even as a biological weapon.